Not all families affected by drug and/or alcohol use will experience difficulties. However research indicates that parental drug and/or alcohol misuse can have significant, damaging, and long lasting consequences for children. Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) repeatedly show that parental substance misuse, mental health issues and domestic abuse are the three most common features. When these combine, as they often do, the impact on children is deemed to be so damaging it has been called the “Toxic Trio”. (Brandon et al 2013) also highlights that neglect was present in 60% of recent SCRs, and there are strong links between parental substance misuse, child protection plans, care proceedings and adoption, and being cared for by extended family.